Journal of the Neurological Sciences issue 433 now available

The FEBRUARY issue of the Journal of the Neurological Sciences Vol 433 is now available online.

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Highlights of the problem

These articles are part of the special issue “Parkinsonism Across the Spectrum of Movement Disorders and Beyond” edited by Joseph Jankovic, Daniel D. Truong and Matteo Bologna.

Review article

Parkinsonism and cerebrovascular disease

The relationship between cerebrovascular disease and Parkinsonism is commonly seen in daily clinical practice, but remains poorly defined and underrecognized with little guidance for the practicing neurologist.

This article attempts to define this association and illustrate the main clinical, radiological and pathological features of the vascular parkinsonism (VaP) syndrome.

Review article

Parkinsonism and Motor Neuron Disorders: Lessons from ALS/PDC in the Western Pacific

Recognized worldwide as an unusual “overlapping” syndrome, Parkinsonism and motor neurone disease, with or without dementia, are best exemplified by the former high-incidence clusters of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/ PDC) in Guam, USA, the Kii Peninsula of Honshu Island, Japan, and Papua, Indonesia, west to New Guinea.

Western Pacific ALS/PDC is a dying neurodegenerative disease with multiple and sometimes overlapping phenotypes (ALS, atypical parkinsonism, dementia) that appear to constitute a single disease of environmental origin, particularly due to exposure to genotoxins /neurotoxins present in the seeds of cycads (Cycas spp.) formerly used as a traditional source of food (Guam) and/or medicine (Guam, Kii-Japan, Papua-Indonesia).

Seven decades of intensive ALS/PDC studies have revealed field and laboratory approaches leading to the discovery of disease etiology that are now being applied to sporadic neurodegenerative disorders such as ALS beyond the region of the Western Pacific.

Review article

Parkinsonism and dystonia: clinical spectrum and diagnostic indices

The links between the two archetypes of basal ganglia disorders, dystonia and parkinsonism, are manifold and stem from clinical observations, imaging studies, animal models, and genetics. The combination of the two, i.e. dystonia-parkinsonism syndrome, is not uncommon in movement disorder clinics and has a myriad of different underlying etiologies, upon which treatment and prognosis depend. .

Based on a comprehensive literature review, the authors delineate the clinical spectrum of disorders presenting with dystonia-parkinsonism.

Review article

The etiopathogenetic and physiopathological spectrum of parkinsonism

Parkinsonism is a syndrome characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity and tremors. Parkinsonism is a common manifestation of Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases called atypical parkinsonism. However, a growing body of clinical and scientific evidence indicates that Parkinsonism may be part of the phenomenological spectrum of various neurological conditions to a greater degree than expected by chance. These include neurodegenerative conditions that are not traditionally classified as movement disorders, for example dementia and motor neuron disease.

In addition, Parkinsonism can characterize a wide range of central nervous system diseases, for example, autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, cerebrospinal fluid disorders (eg, normal pressure hydrocephalus), cerebrovascular diseases and other conditions.

Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been identified in Parkinson’s disease and atypical parkinsonism. Conversely, it is not entirely clear to what extent the same key brain mechanisms and areas are also involved in Parkinsonism due to a broader etiopathogenetic spectrum.

The authors aimed to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the diverse etiopathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of Parkinsonism across a wide range of neurological conditions, with particular emphasis on the role of basal ganglia involvement. The article also highlights the potential implications in the diagnostic approach and the therapeutic management of patients.

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